Viruses: A Powerful Virus
A virus is a tiny submicroscopic viral agent that replicates within an organisms’ living cells. Viruses can affect all life forms, including plants and animals to microbial, fungi and archaenal microorganisms, such as bacteria and Archaea. Virtually all viruses are genetic in nature and have a nucleic acid coding sequence. In simple terms a virus can be described as a type of bacterium or fungus with protein-based chromosomes that copies itself without any interference from the host cell’s genetic instructions. The term “virus” came into usage after the discovery of viruses and virology in the 19th century.
Viruses affect living organisms by inserting their genetic material, usually encoded on their ribosomes, into their host cells. This involves replication of the viral protein-coding genes within the host cell’s framework. This process requires two machinery called Ribonucleases (R) and Adhesons (A). These biological mechanisms have many names; however they all work on the same principles. They incorporate sequences of amino acids that are convertible to specific types of molecules such as sugars, nucleotides (RNA), polysaccharides and amino acid sequences.
R and RNases (R) are pieces of DNA that unwind the double-stranded DNA (data) into a nonreactive form called a poly cassette. The unwinding reaction is triggered by certain enzymes (enzymes) produced in the body which set off the replication of the virus. An example of a ribosome is found on the viral envelope.
RNases and Adhesons are proteins that are complementary to certain other enzymes to act as part of the replicated viral machinery. A ribosome can duplicate itself via budding. Fused RNases and Adhesons are present in all living things including humans. In fact, these proteins are vital for all living things as without them, there would be no life on the planet.
The primary structure of RNases and Adhesons involves repeated cycles of bonding and folding leading to the formation of repeated double-strand structures or double stranded bonds (DSB). These dsbs are the building blocks of every virus. Once formed, the RNases and Adhesons are kept together by strong interlocking surfaces. This results in the formation of a double-strand structure with complementary strands of DNA (data). Viruses carry forward the replicated genetic code, which enables them to reproduce themselves and ultimately create a virus.
Although many viruses are part of the host range of bacteria, fungi and viruses, only some are part of the host range of eukaryotic plants. Common examples are bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chlamydia that are typically found on the outer surface of plant leaf surfaces, or in roots and rhizomes. Examples of eukaryotic viral organisms include eukaryotic plagues such as anthrax, enveloped viruses, Lyme disease and others. Viruses can also be found infecting other eukaryotic organisms and serve as triggers for eukaryotic diseases like yeast infections and Mycoplasma infection.