Earth is the second planet from the Sun, and by far the only natural astronomical object found to support and harbour living organisms. It is a world with a wide range of challenges for its inhabitants. It has a large variety of geographical features such as plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, ice caps and geothermal vents to name a few. A visit to Earth will allow you to see some remarkable geology, which includes evidences of prehistoric man and his lifestyle. The history of earth is a history of conflict and confusion, and is the basis of all religions.


The earth’s interior contains vast amounts of molten rock, and this geothermal heat allows liquids to be stored beneath the earth’s surface, forming oceans and lakes, as well as the earth’s outer core. Geothermal drilling into the earth’s crust and mantle is now possible with advances in technology, and it is opening new horizons for scientific research. By using special tools that reach into the earth’s deep layers, geologists can reveal the secrets hidden beneath.

Earth is an extremely complex planet, being composed of at least five different zones, with each zone having distinct physical characteristics. The earth’s atmosphere is stratified, with some areas much cooler than others, and contains trace amounts of dust and other fine particles. Because the atmosphere acts to regulate the earth’s internal temperatures, it is important to understand how this process works, and how it is able to regulate the earth’s climate. It is thought that the atmosphere is controlled by greenhouse gases formed in the earth’s environment, which itself depends on the Sun to heat it up.

To understand how the earth is able to maintain its temperature so well, it is necessary to understand how the atmosphere is structured. The stratification of the atmosphere is caused by the presence of clouds. Clouds form at high altitudes and move slowly descending, while at lower altitudes they move faster and higher. When clouds are seen from earth, they appear white or silver in color because of albedo, or the reflection of sunlight off the cloud, which has a cooling effect on the clouds. This process keeps the earth at a average temperature of approximately 11 km per square.

As clouds move through the atmosphere, air is forced to circulate through them and then mix with it to fill all available space. This mixing is done constantly, and the mixing of the atmosphere is called convection. Earth’s average surface temperature is strongly dependent on the circulation of air and therefore on the presence and amount of clouds. The presence of clouds greatly affects the earth’s radiative heat budget, which is the balance between the earth’s heat absorbed by the earth and heat emitted out into space.

Hydrosphere: The earth’s hydrosphere contains water, and is therefore included in the earth’s atmosphere. However, not all waters are warm. The earth’s inner core is cold enough, due to low pressure and very high temperatures, to hold onto the water and keep it from escaping into the atmosphere.